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CosmosUp | May 27, 2020

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Did You Know? Blue Supergiant Stars

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Did You Know? Blue Supergiant Stars


Stars that rotate at a fast pace are known to contain high proportions of helium. These stars also exhibit a mixture of different kinds of elements



Blue supergiant stars have heavy elements in their spectra. The quantities of heavy elements vary with the age of the star. Another factor which determines the quantity of heavy elements is the efficiency with which nucleosynthesis products are convected from the core of a star to its surface


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  1. David Carlson

    Are OB supergiants dark-matter stars?

    Bok globules as dark-matter reservoirs of luminous matter: Bok Globules = Dark Matter

    Scientists assume Bok globules are ‘proto-protostars’ in the process of formation which is hard to support since Bok globules are the coldest objects in the natural Universe, so maybe we’re looking at them through the wrong end of the telescope—

    What if Bok globules condensed a majority of the matter in the early Universe following the Dark Ages by phase-change nucleations in galaxy-sized atomic-hydrogen aggregates, endothermically clamping the temperature as atomic hydrogen reverted to plasma, promoting gas densification into globules.

    As the coldest objects in the sky, Bok globules are invisible and thus dark except when highlighted inside glowing nebulae or when they sprout cometary tails evaporated by nearby OB supergiants.

    And the largest 100 – 300 solar-mass globules spontaneously collapsed into Population III stars while smaller 2 – 50 stellar-mass globules survived to the current era where they’re essentially invisible except where contrasted against bright nebulae or outgassing as cometary globules.

    Then cometary globules are evaporating Bok globules exposed to super-intense OB supergiant radiation, and OB supergiants condense from shock-wave compression of globules by nearby OB-supergiant supernovae in an endless cycle.

    And cold molecular gas streaming from cometary globules form (giant) molecular clouds from which T-Tauri stars condense.

    Finally, since gas pressure likely supported the primordial galactic-sized gas accumulations, many of the Population III star black holes would have had very little angular momentum, causing them to fall to the center to rapidly form supermassive black holes.

    This has all the hallmarks of a good theory which ties together many phenomena, including:
    – Dark matter
    – (Cometary) Bok globules,
    – OB supergiants,
    – Population III stars,
    – the reionization of the Universe following the ‘Dark Ages’,
    – Spiral-galaxy shape
    – (Giant) molecular clouds
    – T-Tauri stars and their widely-varying metallicities,
    – Supermassive black holes and quasars

    By comparison, the competing theories are ad hoc, explaining nothing more than the (apparent) excess dark-matter mass.

  2. Lonnie Starr

    What I’ve been reading is that starts “light up” at approx. one solar mass. Since, when a star lights up it’s stellar wind begins to blow excess material away, there shouldn’t be any stars much larger than one solar mass. So my question is, how do super giants form? Obviously they can’t form by the simple process of accretion, they need some other mechanism to get around the one solar mass limit.

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