NASA labels Europa’s orange-brown stuff “non-ice components,” because no one knows for sure what it is. However, a NASA astrogeologist has used infrared light to compare the orange-brown material with extreme bacteria here on Earth.
He says he wasn’t looking for anything in particular and was very surprised to find a close, though not perfect, match. No, life hasn’t been definitely discovered on Europa. The only way to tell for sure is with samples.
comments section .