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CosmosUp | November 23, 2017

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Stunning New Theory: Black Holes Don't Erase Information

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Stunning New Theory: Black Holes Don’t Erase Information

For years, scientists have believed that black holes are a portal to no-return. Astronauts in movies fear the mouths of black holes because the nothingness extends into an unknown forever. Black holes have been known as Bermuda Triangles of space – what goes in is lost forever. Or so we thought.

Over time, physicists have argued that black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct.

According to this new study, black holes don’t erase information, which may suggest that “information loss paradox” in black holes does not exist.

Stephen Hawking was the first who proposed that black holes were capable of radiating particles, and that the energy lost through this process would cause the black holes to shrink and eventually disappear. He further concluded that the particles emitted by a black hole would provide no clues about what lay inside, meaning that any information held within a black hole would be completely lost once the entity evaporated. Though Hawking later said he was wrong and that information could escape from black holes.

“According to our work, information isn’t lost once it enters a black hole. It doesn’t just disappear,” said co-author Dr Dejan Stojkovic of the University at Buffalo.

In their study, Dr. Dejan Stojkovic and doctoral student Anshul Saini explain interactions that take place between the particles given off by a black hole can be used to reveal information about the phenomenon, such as the traits of the object that first formed it and the characteristics of the matter and energy it draws in. The new study presents explicit calculations demonstrating how information is preserved, Stojkovic said.

Further, Stojkovic explain: “an observer standing outside a black hole can recover information about the matter at the heart of the black hole by analyzing particle interactions such as gravitational attraction. Apparently, the scientific community has knows of such correlating information for a while, but this is the first paper flesh out the connection mathematically.”

Originally, many scientists deemed these correlations as ineffective because they were so minute, but Stojovic calculated that these interactions grow over time, and become large enough to significantly affect calculations.

“These correlations were often ignored in related calculations since they were thought to be small and not capable of making a significant difference,” Stojkovic said “Our explicit calculations show that though the correlations start off very small, they grow in time and become large enough to change the outcome.”

The research paper titled “Radiation from a Collapsing Object is Manifestly Unitary” was published in Physical Review Letters.

 

 

  • Science journal: http://goo.gl/zIrHSC.



Comments


  1. Ron Cole

    Black holes are probably just stars that have a mass that exceeds the ability for photons to escape an other than that, they’re just stars. But anything Humans don’t fully understand and/or cannot see always inspires the dangerously fertile imagination of Humans who will always stray into magical thinking. Anything we cannot see or understand almost automatically becomes a place where time doesn’t exist or giants live there or the laws of physics are reversed there or that is where god lives or it is the realm of magical unicorns. Unfortunately this is true even of scientists who should know better, yet even they give into the same temptation had by ancient people to fill in the gaps in their knowledge with theories about the impossible being true in those areas.

    For starters, the phrase ‘information is destroyed’ doesn’t even mean anything. Information is not a physical thing and cannot be ‘destroyed’ because there’s nothing to destroy. But because the word ‘information’ is a noun, the sentence seems to make sense. It’s like saying “I have a block of frozen wind”, because the sentence structure works grammatically, it seems to be saying something when it really isn’t.

    Just think about the meaning of the word ‘information’, information is really a description of a person’s source of learning something, the root word being ‘inform’. Any destructive force, from fire to a bomb can “destroy information” if it burns or blows up either books or computers or people who can teach you something so that part is true. But when an allegedly reputable scientist says “information entering a black hole ceases to exist” that somehow becomes more of a magical and profound concept… why? A comet technically contains information (things we can learn) and if that comet falls into the Sun, then you can say the same thing about our Sun. But somehow that’s supposed to be different? When an insect dies in the forest and decays and disintegrates into dust, nobody says “information sucked into the forest floor ceases to exist”.

    This is just a bunch of nonsensical word games that makes money for some people who write books about this kind of wordplay. Rubbish.


    • Alessio Aragona

      Ignorance grows even though culture is becoming accesible to everyone. Probably mental agility and critical sense are qualities that are not being taught as fast as accessibility to information grows. As Frank Acosta said… Stick to the matter you feel more confortable with, don’t try to immerge yourself in reads that you can’t even hope to compregend, seeing your reasoning.


  2. Frank Acosta

    Ron Cole, this subject matter is way above your ability to comprehend so please refrain from disparaging work you do not understand. “Information” means more than the literal sense which you comprehend. Looks like grammar is your forte. Stick to that please.


  3. Yehiel Gotkis

    Well, here is an alternative concept: Can somebody, please, comment on it

    Black holes to pull-in the spacetime – Is it possible? Well, it looks like it is…

    Liquid vortex (LV) sheds light on the black holes (BHs) essentials.

    Gravity-driven liquid vortex – a generic analog of a cosmic black hole. Here is a few exciting things we can learn from it? Part 4 – Summarizing the most important points.
    Vortices could be found everywhere around us. Assuming different kinds of vortices possess common generics, we can get an insight in understanding the hardly observable ones, for instance BHs, by observing the easily observable ones, like LVs. Exploring LVs, also allows to run the observations with reasonable resources, in reasonable time, under variety of conditions and to observe the developments beneath the funnel bottom, which, in reference to the BHs, can be considered as an analog of the BH bottom.
    The LV I’ve observed was arranged to confine its developments in the thin surface layer thus making it to act as a two-dimensional one. The collection of LV videos could be accessed at YouTube under my name Yehiel Gotkis (https://www.youtube.com/user/YehielGotkis). Please slow down the video rate as much as you can to see more details.
    Analysis of the observations leads to a shocking grasp questioning even the widely-adopted views on dark matter and dark energy.
    Observations, analysis, interpretations and conclusions.
    · The LV was emitting double-spiral waves known to carry momentum and associated kinetic energy transferable to other objects. The double spiral generation was induced by the spinning bottom asymmetry shaped as a distorted digit 8. The fact that generation of propagating away waves was caused by the spinning vortex asymmetry, in reference to the BH case, means that spinning BHs, being of even slightly asymmetric geometry, should generate/re-emit a part of the acquired mass/energy, as gravitational waves, back into the space. Which, in cosmic timescale, should make a significant amount of it, meaning that the Universe should be filled with energetic gravitational ripples. As the ocean surface ripples.
    · Also, the spinning double spiral wave profile, while swelling from the LV center, should oscillate, and it indeed does, which at some observation angles looks like wobbling (check, for example, “Liquid vortex upper double spiral wave generation” video \https://www.youtube.com/user/YehielGotkis), providing a simple suggestion on interpretation of the Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) phenomenon.
    · The LV observed was naturally pulling-in the water and whatsoever floating over it. In relation to the BHs, the upper water surface could be thought to be associated with the spacetime and the floating stuff – with the regular matter. So, for the spacetime/matter duo, as for the water/floating stuff,
    The spacetime and the matter are inherently engaged with each other.
    This engagement could be guessed of causing effects analogous to hydrodynamic drag and friction – gravitational drag and friction in BH case. Within the frame of this rationale (abbreviated as BHSSR, Black Hole Sucking Spacetime Rationale),
    The BHs are to be thought of pulling-in not only the matter but also the spacetime, whirling around the BH as liquid whirls around the LV.
    Intriguingly, the BHSSR allows to interpret the galaxy rotation curves anomaly and the Universe accelerated expansion with no necessity of introducing the two famous but still challenging to prove hypotheses:
    Existence of the dark matter
    As per the BHSSR, the pulled-in by the BH whirling spacetime, as a spinning elastic thin film, can modify the radial and angular distributions of the shear stress and the actual force defining the (regular) mass rotational velocity. Which will depend on the spacetime media “fluidity” in the same way as it depends on the water fluidity for the LV. Obviously, the spacetime “deformation” depending on the BH activity, may extend far beyond the disc of the observable regular mass and appear as an external halo influencing the galactic dynamics.
    Existence of the dark energy
    As per the BHSSR, at the galactic periphery, where the pulling-in force is diminished, the keeping on centrifugal force, induced by the spinning spacetime, accelerates the stars away from the galaxy center.
    · Another important LV occurrence is associated with the development of a galaxy-like spiral shape when a handful of shredded dry leaves was spread over the vortex area (video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l8HBO6E8LAg).
    The deep significance of this development stirred my mind and I would like to share it here:
    The floating leaves were arranging in a galaxy-like shape – what could drive the disarranged flock of intellectless dry leaves to organize themselves in a spiral shape? With the knowledge acquired about the LV, the answer is clear to me now…
    It is the water whirling around the LV, managing the floating stuff to form the spiral shape – it would not have formed spiraling if not governed by the whirling waters. This important deduction leads to an unambiguous conclusion: if in a system A made of non-continuous media a spiral structure is revealed, it must be postulated that there is an adjoined system B made of continuous media or containing a continuous media component (continuous media is essential for developing a vortex and an associated whirling activity). With relation to the galaxies, the only component to be considered as being continuous is the spacetime, which, being actuated by the BH vortex to whirlingly spin around and pulled into the BH, acts as the adjoined system B. So,
    The BH vortex actuates the spacetime to whirlingly spin around and flow into it, and the whirling spacetime, in its turn, directs the galactic regular matter to arrange itself in a spiral shape
    This concept provides explanations for numerous cosmic phenomena.
    And at the end I would like once again to emphasize on the spacetime/matter relations:
    The matter and the spacetime are adhered to each other as an inseparably engaged duo: where the spacetime there the matter. And vice versa.
    And
    If for LV and BH vortices a number of conceptual features were found consistent it would be odd not to consider these vortices to be correlated, in general,
    This is it.Thank you for your attention


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