Someday in the very distant future – about 5 billion years from now – our sun begins to lose its “power”, running out of fuel, it will be the beginning of the end. The existence of the central star of our solar system will come to end. We know what it looks like today’s Sun, but how will look the dying sun?
The Sun will begin to swell – will increase its size, its outer layers expanding into space beyond Earth’ orbit, “frying” the planets in its path, eventually will explode, leaving behind the burned remains of planets (including Earth) and a dense core, a formation called white dwarf, remnant of the star that was once the Sun.
And when will these things happens, Sun will probably look like the star in the image below called HD 184 738 (also known as the Campbell’s Hydrogen Star) which lies in the center of a small planetary nebula in the constellation Cygnus.
HD 184738 is a low-mass star like our sun, therefore, it “agony” can provide us the final transformation model of our sun in about 5 billion years from now.
In the image (form Hubble Telescope), the red and orange glow is caused by hydrogen and nitrogen surrounding the dying star.
HD 184738 is surrounded by dust that’s elementally very similar to the material that the Earth formed from. Researchers don’t know for sure where it comes from this dust, but it is possible that it derives from a group of planets that formed the solar system of the star HD 184 738 and were destroyed by the explosion of the central star.