These tornados are made of superheated gas and plasma up to 2 million degrees Celsius (3.6 million °F). The winds in the tornado whip around at 300,000 kilometers (186,000 mi) per hour. The first tornado to be filmed was captured in 2011 by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.
Others have been filmed since, and they’ve been found to often come before coronal mass ejections. CMEs are blasts of plasma and radiation that shoot out of the Sun and have also been associated with sunspots. Figuring out how all of these magnetic phenomena fit together is a puzzle currently being probed by NASA’s supercomputers.